This is a collection of chemistries for holographic development and holographic film manufacture. I know very little about chemistry and this is all cobbled together from various books and on-line resources. For the definitive source about holographic development please purchase a copy of SILVER HALIDE MATERIALS FOR HOLOGRAPHY AND THEIR PROCESSING by Hans Bjelkhagen. This is the best book I have found.
Contact Integraf for JD-2, JD-3, JD-4, SILVER HALIDE MATERIALS AND THEIR PROCESSING by Hans Bjelkhagen or for Slavich Film.
Laser Reflections also sells Slavich Film.
Contact Photographer's Formulary for supplies.
For more information about film look at Slavich's web site.
Here is some data about film resolutions from Hans Bjelkhagen.
All of these chemicals are very dangerous. Please don't breath the dust or fumes. Make sure to wear gloves and don't pour the used chemicals in your drain. Your drain goes to someone's drinking water! Don't forget to read and follow the MSDS.
Notes on Mixing Chemistry for Silver Halide Materials
Excerpts from: M.N. Leroy
Jeff Blyth's Diffusion Method
Index matching fluids
Table 3 from Slavich
The order and methods you use for mixing is very important. Normally you add in the order of the formulation. Some of my formulations are likely to be out of order. Here is some information from "Silver Halide Materials": when I can find it again. :-)
JD-2 from Integraf for PFG-01 from SlavichSolution ADistilled Water 100 Deg. F 750 mlCatachol 20 gramsAscorbic Acid 10 gramsSodium Sulfite 10 gramsUrea 75 gramsWater 68 Deg. F 1 literSolution BDistilled Water 100 Deg. F 800 mlSodium Carbonate, Anhyd. 60 gramsWater 68 Deg. F to make 1 literMix equal parts A and B just before development. Mix enough for one hologram only. ( I have developed 3, But the first one is best)BleachDistilled Water 68 deg. F 750 mlPotassium Dichromate 5 gramsSodium Bisulfate 80 gramsWater 68 deg. F to make 1 literDissolve potassium dichromate completely before adding sodium bisulfate. The bleach can be used for a long time. At least 5 months shelf life.Develop 2 minutesRinse 3 minutesBleach till clear (less than two minutes)RinsePhoto floAir dry
JD-3 from Integraf
Ascorbic acid 10g
Sodium sulfite 10g
Water to make 1L
Sodium carbonate 60g
Water to make 1L
Copper sulfate 17g
Potassium bromide 55g
Succinic acid 2g
Water to make 1L
Ascorbic acid 10g
water to make 400ml
Mix equal parta A and B. Working solution has a life of 8 hours. Only develop one hologram. Develop for 2 minutes with agitation.
Soak in distilled water for 10 seconds.
Wash for 3 minutes.
Do not dilute bleach. Bleach emulsion side down till clear. Less than 2 minutes.
Wash for 3 minutes.
Dilute post treatment 1 to 10 with water. soak under bright light untill the hologram turns from pink to light brown.
Wash for 3 minutes.
JD-4 from Integraf for PFG-03M from Slavich
Developer Part A (1 liter)Quantity
Metol or Elon (p-Methylaminophenol sulfate) 4 g
Ascorbic acid (powder) 25 g
Developer Part B (1 liter)
Sodium carbonate, anhydrous 70 g
Sodium hydroxide 15 g
Bleach (1 liter)
Copper sulfate (pentahydrate) 35g
Potassium bromide 100g
Sodium hydrogen sulfate crystals 5g
Use three l liter (or larger)size clean glass or plastic bottles with leak proof caps. Label them A, B, and Bleach respectively.
Warm the distilled or de-ionized water to about 40o C (warm to the touch).
Fill the bottle marked A with 700 ml of warm water. Dissolve the Metol in it, then add the ascorbic acid. Add 300 ml of warm water to make 1 liter of Part A developer. Tightly cap the bottle. Part A will oxidized if it is exposed to oxygen. In time (over a few days to few weeks), the solution may turn yellow due to the oxidation of ascorbic acid; the solution is still useable. Once the solution turns dark brown, the potency is lost and should be disposed.
One way of protecting it from oxidation is to subdivide the solution into smaller bottles so that the unused portions are in fully capped bottles, with little or no air space on top. Refrigeration also slows down oxidation (exercise extreme caution to prevent its mistaken identity as food).
Follow the same procedure for Part B (add the sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide in either order). This solution will keep for many weeks.
Follow the same procedure for mixing the Bleach. This solution has very long shelf life.
Metol-Ascorbate developer courtesy of Laser Reflections
The formula is as follows:
Metol-Acorbate Developer (Part A + Part B)
Ascorbic Acid 80g
Water to 1000ml
Sodium Carbonate Anhydrous 120g
Sodium Hydroxide 14g
Potassium Bromide 4g
Water to 1000ml
Use it in combination with a Fe-EDTA bleach - a safe,
stable bleach which has a long shelf life.
EDTA (2Na) 30g
Fe(III) Sulfate 30g
Potassium Bromide 30g
Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate Crystals 30g
Water to 1000ml
When using Russian emulsions -
Pre-develop gelatin hardening bath -
Sensitizes and maintains colors, allows squeegee use
Distilled water 750 ml
Formaldehyde 37% (Formalin) 10 ml (10.2 g)
Potassium bromide 2 g
Sodium carbonate (anhydrous) 5 g
add distilled water to make 1 L
Processing time 6 minutes. Developing times may increase with harder gelatin.
From Jeffrey:CWC2 DEVELOPER and PBU-AMIDOL BLEACH
- for all types of HOLOGRAMS
CWC2 - two-part DEVELOPER
*PART A solution
500 ml. warmed distilled water.
L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous)
30 grams *PART B solution
500 ml. warmed distilled water.
Part A is good for one month, Part B indefinitely.
Add equal parts A & B to activate just a minute or two before use, just enough to cover one hologram. Mixed solution is active for 20 minutes. Discard after one use to assure each hologram has optimum development.
at least TWO minutes @ 68 degrees F. with constant agitation (AGFA).
FIVE minutes for low power lasers, for HRT plates and PFG-03M plates.
Rinse in distilled water.
View a green safelight through rinsed plate to judge density - some variation is OK.
Adjust exposure/developing time to achieve a final developed density of:
D 1.5 - 2 - medium gray (for an unbleached transmission hologram) D 2 - 3.5 - very dark (reflection holograms). D 4 - appears mostly opaque (good for HRT reflection holograms).
Do not use fixer if it will be bleached (reflection holograms are usually bleached).
Notes on developed density - this stage is where you figure if exposure, ratio, gleam spots, beam centering, even illumination, and overall light levels and their recorded patterns are OK for the next shot as well, or need adjustment. After the plate is bleached clear, these clues are gone. Although dark, wet, and hard to see, observation of different gray levels is important, hopefully understanding what caused each visible pattern. A good safelight is important. My favorite is a commercially available four-foot fluorescent fixture with plastic tube filters.
PBU-AMIDOL re-halogenating BLEACH (Phillips Bjelkhagen Ultimate)
Sodium Bisulfate (or Citric Acid)
20 gramsCupric Bromide 1 gramAmidol (- add last ! -) 1 gram____________________________________________
Mix one at a time, in sequence, into 500 ml. warmed distilled water,
then add another 500 ml. distilled water to make 1 liter.
*Wait at least 30 minutes for chemical activation.
- Bleach unfixed plate for 3-5 minutes @ 68 degrees F. 'til clear + 2 minutes. Rehalogenating (and image brightening) continues after clearing.
- Rinse, rinse, rinse in distilled water.
- With a drop of Photo-Flo in the final rinse, squeegee.
- Air dry, a low-heat blower or drying cabinet for around 15 minutes - not too fast, not too slow.
An acetic acid rinse after bleaching may help reduce print-out (the emulsion will darken a bit after you run out in the daylight to see your image). I prefer to avoid intense sunlight until aged a few days. Re-bleaching later will partially clear a darkened plate and give some immunity to further print-out. Bleach can be re-used a few times, and is usually good for two weeks - red color will fade to clear, indicating exhaustion. *Beware sediment as it ages - do NOT attempt to re-mix before each use - decant and do not dump dregs out onto emulsion. Bleach will leave permanent purple stains on everything - handle carefully ! Many thanks to Cooke and Ward, Hans Bjelkhagen, Nick Phillips and Ed Wesly for the many trials to attain the basic formulation.
Phenidone .026 gHydroquinone .665 gAnhydrous Sodium Sulfite 13 gPotassium Hydroxide 1.38 gAmmonium Thiocyanate 3.12gDistilled Water 1 L
Distilled Water 700ccMetol 6 gHydroquinone 7 gPhenidone .8ganhydrous sodium Sulfite 30gAnhydrous Sodium Carbonate 60 gPotassium Bromide 2 gSequesterine Agent 1 gWater to make 1 L
Part ADistilled Water 700 ccMetol 15 gPyrogallol 7 gAnhydrous Sodium Sulfite 20 gPotassium Bromide 4 gSequestrene Agent 2 gWater to make 1 LPart BDistilled Water 700 ccAnhydrous Carbonate 60 gWater to make 1 L
Ascorbic Acid 18gSodium Hydroxide 12 gSodium Phosphate Dibasic 28.4 gDistilled water 1 LJust before use add Phenidone .5 g
Water 1 LPotassium Ferocyanide 1 tablespoonPotassium Bromide 1 tablespoon orCupric Bromide 1 tablespoon (not both!)
water 1 Lpotassium Bromide 30 gBorax 15 gPotassium dichromate 2 gJust before use add PBQ (p-benzoquinone) 2 g (good for 15 minutes)
PBQWater 1 LMercuric Chloride 1 tablespoonPotassium Bromide 1 tablespoonorWater 1 LPotassium Bromide 30 gBoric Acid 1.5 gPBQ 2 gGood for only 15 minutes!orSulphric acid 1 gpotassium Bromide 5gMethyl Paraben 2gHydrogen Peroxide 4 g (you have to figure the weight of the Hydrogen peroxide in you solution!)Potassium Alum 5g (hardener)PBQ 1 gPhenosafranine 1g (desensitizer)
Water 600 ccFerric Nitrate 8-hydrate 150 gPotassium Bromide 30 gDissolve .3 g of Phenosafranine in 250 cc of methanol and then add.Water to make 1 LDilute 4 parts water to 1 part gp-431 before use.
Since some are interested in the old Leroy paper, here is my - rudimentary - translation:
Excerpts from: M.N. Leroy, Préparation et sensitométrie de plaques photographiques à grain très fin (plaques pour la photographie interférentielle), Paris 1929
Summary. The following note presents a new way for the making of fine grain photographic emulsions, derived from colloidal silver, that allows for the spectral recording of remarkable brightness, comparable to Lippmann emulsions. It (the note) summarizes certain results achieved with silver chloride, bromide and iodide. The study of the density graphs indicates a maximum sensitivity at a particular lambda for each of the three cases and depends on the molecular weight of the specific salt used. Having established the characteristic graph of each emulsion at certain spectral levels, the author is studying the variation of gamma as a function of lambda, and points out that these plates, (though) having the qualities of any common plates, they can be sensitized to any wavelength and t can be used for color photography.
The present study tried to establish the sensitometric characteristics of Lippmann plates, prepared according the formula of the ingenious inventor of the only direct recording method of color photographs.
The results indicated too many variations and lacked the desired consistency. This is certainly due to fluctuations usually occurring (even) with the same composition (differing but on agitation, temperature, filtering, washing etc.). In one case, instead of being sensitive to the wavelength showing the strongest diffraction, we even observed sensitivity to radiation all over the visible spectrum. Without adding any sensitizers, it all the same behaved like an orthochromatic plate and, this was consistent for all plates of that batch, we do not have an explanation.
According to Mr. Cotton, who advised us to use colloidal silver, on which grounds he had managed to make plates for interference color photography, we succeeded to get light sensitive layers of very small grains and of great consistency indicated by the measurements we carried out in the case of silver chloride, bromide and iodide.
Preparation of the plates
To a tepid solution (filtered warm) of 2.5g special gelatin in 50 cm3 distilled water, 3 cm3 of a 10% colloidal silver solution are added. The resulting liquid of brown color, is poured on glass plates according to the methods used for collodion. The plates, arranged horizontally until gellation, are subsequently dried protected from dust. These operations are carried out under normal light, thus allowing for the production of a stock to be used occasionally as needed.
The transformation of the colloidal silver into halide salts is carried out under subdued light, such as that of a candle or some reduced gaslight. The plate is introduced into a bath for which - after numberless trials - we established the following compositions (note: the quantities given do not correspond with the completed reaction but proofed to work most conveniently for our experiments):
copper sulfate ...........2g
copper sulfate ..........2g
"Bromination" is taking place equally well by using a diluted solution of cupric bromide; cupric chloride however, produced an opaque layer as well as did chlorine water (?) or iodine solution.
During the preparation of the iodine (? rather cupric iodide I suppose - MM) bath, a precipitation of cupric iodide is forming which can be eliminated by filtering.
As soon as the reaction stops - that is to say, when the yellowish color has vanished - one has to wash the plate, turned transparent meanwhile, exhaustively.
At this stage the plates are very little sensitive. A means to this nuisance is to insert them into a second bath of 50g water to which 2g of a silver nitrate solution (0.5g AgNO3 per 100g water) were added during 1 minute. They are washed with distilled water and dried in darkness.
The developer has the following composition:
The plates are fixed in sodium thiosulfate.
Due to the preliminary results, this study represents only some sort of beginning. Nonetheless, we are thinking the constants (?) introduced by Hurter and Driffield into photographic practice, can be applied to the fine grain plates we prepared.
We will continue our work, systematically studying the use of chemical sensitizers and try to realize a perfectly orthochromatic "interference" plate.
We meanwhile like to point out that the silver bromide plates prepared by flowing, are easily sensitized orthochromatically and allow for spectral recordings of the same brightness as Lippmann plates. The same is also valid for chloride. However, the sensitizers ("orthochromatisants") successfully applied to chloride and bromide, did not show any effect on iodide.
Concluding this work, it is an pleasant duty to express my appreciation to professor Cotton (directeur du Laboratoire des Recherches physiques à la Sorbonne), for his support and interest.
I equally thank my teacher, Mr. de Watteville, who introduced me into the delicate technique of interference photography... etc.
Diffusion method - estimated costAs promise, I post my estimated costs table for a batch of 20 holoplates made with the Jeff Blyth's diffusion method.
by Jean (no login)
Silane, LiBr, Pinacyanol come from Sigma-Aldrich
All prices are in Euro (1 Euro ~ 0,97 USD)
Chemical Price/Quantity Diluted quantity Quant/20 plates Price/20 plates AgNO3 (6%) 18,11/10g. 166 ml 60 6,55 LiBr (3%) 11,2/100g. 3300 ml 300(*) 1,02 Pinacyanol (0,1%) 16,81/250mg 250 ml 7,5 0,5 Ascobic Acid (1%) 2,11/30g 3000 ml 300(*) 0,21 Gelatin (15%) 9/1000g 6666 ml 100 0,14 Chrome Alum (2%) 3/100g. 5000 ml 300(*) 0,18 Silane (1%) 31,16/100ml 10000 ml 100 0,31 Glass (4x5) 12,5/20 - 20 12,50 Total for 20 plates - - - 21,41 or 1,07/plate
(*) I assume I change for each batch :
- LiBr + Dye bath
- Chrome Alum hardener
- Ascorbic Acid sensitizer
But please pay attention of this following note from Jeff about the LiBr bath :
"please note that I myself reuse the dye/LiBr baths several times. A little bit of precipitate in the bottom of container (it is only AgBr) can be left there and the liquid
poured off or the solution just filtered. So you can make many plates if you want to for the initial expence.
The quantity of subbed plates you could make is enough for an industrial production run!"
I don't calculate price for water, acetone and methanol because those products are cheap.
First batch can seems expensive because you need to purchase relatively big quantity in regard
of the used quantity and you need to some laboratory material.
Hope this can give you the curiosity to test this easy method.
PS : my 2nd batch has failed because I don't care to dry plates enough after Chrome Alum bath! Results was presence of chrome salt who fog the plates.
I'll try hardening gelatin with a bath of 1% formalin in DI water.
Posted on Nov 18, 2002, 6:53 AM
Here are some available index matching fluids for reference (could be helpful for liquid filled lenses as well). There are some scary chemicals here so get the MSDS before you use them and follow all recomended procedures:
Methyl Alcohol 1.328
Paraffin (Lamp Oil) about 1.4
l-Butanol, 3 methyl 1.405
Kodak Dispersant MX-1320 1.420
Stoddard Solvent 1.435
Methyl Chloroform 1.438
Carbon Tetrachloride 1.461
Decalin Solvent 1.475
Mineral Oil 1.475
Di-n-butyl phthalate 1.497
Xylene (commercial) 1.499
Benzyl ether 1.517
Ethyl benzoil acetate 1.523
Chloro benzene 1.524
Methyl salicylate 1.536
Benzyl benzoate 1.570
Bromo naphthalene 1.658
Refractive index shown at 20C.
From Silver-Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their
by H.I. Bjelkhagen
SM-6Sodium Hydroxide 12.0gMethyl Phenidone 6.0gAscorbic Acid 18gSodium Phosphate (dibasic) 28.4gWater to 1LFrom www.slavich.com
Sigma Aldrich code
Sodium Phosphate (dibasic)
Sodium Sulphite (anhy.)
Table 3: Chemical Formulas and suppliers codes.Stop BathAcetic Acid 20gWater to 1L
Safe Ferric Brilland Bleach ( rehalogenating Bleach designed by brilland)
You can use it and store it for a very long time at room temperature. It gives very low noise results.
AACAscorbic Acid 18gSodium Carmonate to give a pH of 10.5Distilled Water 1L
AGFA 80Metol 2.5gSoduim Sulfite (anhydrous) 100gHydroquinone 10gPotassium Carbonate 60gPotassium Bromide 4gDistilled Water 1L
GP-8Metylphenidone .2gHydroquinone 5gSodium sulfite (anhydrous) 100gPotassium hydroxide 10.6gAmmonium thiocyanate 24gDistilled water 1LMix 60 ml of developer with 400ml of distilled water. Develop for 6 minutes at 20C.
GP-2Metylphenidone .2gHydroquinone 5gSodium sulfite (anhydrous) 100gPotassium hydroxide 5gAmmonium thiocyanate 12gDistilled water 1LMix 15ml of developer with 400ml distilled water. Develop for 12 minutes at 20C without agitation. Develop with plate facing up and DO NOT agitate (you don't want to move the disolved silver away from the plate).Metylphenidone .02gHydroquinone .65gSodium sulfite (anhydrous) 13gPotassium hydroxide 1.4gAmmonium thiocyanate 3.1gDistilled water 1LDevelop for 2 minutes at 22C. 3 seconds of initial agitation.Metol .5gSodium Sulfite (anhydrous) 100gHydroquinone 45gSodium carbonate 30gPotassium thiocyanate 5gPotassium bromide 10gDistilled water 1LMix 1 part developer to 8 parts distilled water.Amidol 4gSodium sulfite (anhydrous) 30gSilver nitrate 3gPotassium bromide 2gSodium thiosulfate 45gDistilled water 1LDevelop for 8 minutes. Fix for 2 to 3 minutes.F2Metol 10gSodium sulfite (anhydrous) 100gSilver nitrate 2gPotassium bromide 2gSodium thiosulfate 30gDistilled water 1LDevelop for 30 minutes. No fix is required.
SHSG for PFG-03C and PFG-03M
from: Transmission and Reflection SHSG Holograms - Kim, Choi, Choi, Kim, Kim, Bjelkhagen, Phillips - SPIE
and SHSG processing for three-wavelength HOEs recording in Silver Halide Materials - Kim, Choi, Bjelkhagen, Philips - SPIE
I have made some assumptions about their process. Please read the source if you are serious about this process.
Formaldehyde (37%) 10ml
Potassium Bromide 2g
Sodium Carbonate (anhydrous) 5g
Deionized Water 1L
2% Acetic Acid Bath
Bleach (pH 5)
Cupric Bromide 1g
Potassium Persulfate 10g
Citric Acid 50g
Potassium Bromide 20g
Chromium (III) Potassium Sulfate 20g
Deionized Water 1L
Add 1g Metol after everything is mixed
Ammonium Thiosulfate (anhydrous) 10g
Sodium Sulfate (anhydrous) 20g
Deionized water 1L
Prehardening 6 min
Develop G282C Diluted 1 to 3 to 1 to 5 3 min
Rinse Running Deionized Water at least 3 Min
Bleach (diluted 1:3) 15 min
Warm water bath (60C) 10 min
Dehydrate 50% IMS 3 min
100% IMS 3 min
Dry in 45C oven 5 min
Vapor harden with Formaldehyde 25 min
or 50% glutaraldehyde vapor 25min
Fix 2 Min
Dehydrate 50% Isopropyl 10 min
100% 10 min
100% 70C 2min
Dry in 45C oven.
Seal with Pascofix
The two developers mentioned in US 4108661 might be candidates for developers a la G284c:
hydroquinone: 16.5 g
potassium bromide: 1.7 g
sodium salt of EDTA: 1.7 g
potassium metabisulphite: 40 g
1-phenyl-5-mercaptotetrazole: 35 g
sodium hydroxide and water to make: 1 liter at pH 11.8.
hydroquinone: 25 g
potassium bromide: 2.5 g
sodium salt of EDTA: 2.5 g
potassium metabisulphite: 62.5 g
1-phenyl-5-mercaptotetrazole: 50 mg
potassium thiocyanate: 0.5 g
sodium hydroxide and water to make: 1 liter at pH 11.8
(Colin's Note: These developers have some of the features but the MSDS includes Potassium Sulphite and Hydroquinone as the only listable toxins. Info from Kim et. al. G282C is the high speed reversal prosess for AGFA Millimask Plates. "Such non-tanning developers usually contain halide solvents and encourage sharp developed edges."
Maybe I should have pointed to another paper (also in SPIE 4659) by a Russian group (Evstigneeva, Drozdova, Mikhailov) dealing with SHSG.
The authors recorded pulsed holograms on VRP plates (which incidentally are said to come close to PFG-01). (Colin's Note: VRP is green sensitive and PFG-01 is Red Sensitive. For more details see www.slavich.com)
They describe the following processing steps:
1) Development in a non-tanning developer (SM-6);
2) rehalogenating bleach (permanganate);
3) intermediate alcohol (ethanol) drying;
4) uniform second exposure;
5) second development in diluted developer;
6) reversal bleaching (dichromate);
8) dehydration in isopropanol.
The potassium permanganate bleach is formed by:
Pot. permanganate ................0,4g
Sulfuric acid ...................0,4ml
The second developer:
Sodium sulfite ......................5g
From Martin:The best formula I ever made for a colloidal developer was:
Stock solution MM-Collo 1:
Dilute 1 : 50 or up to 1:100 (with distilled water)
On PFG-03M it yielded extremely fine grains, resulting in a yellow emulsion (compared with the orange/red layer produced upon GP development). Development is quite slow, requiring > 30 min @ 20°C.
Russian VR-P developer:
Sodium Sulphite anhydrous 194 g
Hydroquinon 25 g
Potassium Hydroxide 22 g
Methylphenydone 1.5 g
Potassium Bromide 20 g
Potassium Metaborate 140 g
1,2,3-Benzotriazole 0.1 g
Distilled water to 1 L
Working solution: 1 part of VR-P Developer + 6 parts distilled water